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Two things are true of the Linux command line: one, there are thousands of possible commands you can use at any given time, and two, you’ll only end up using a fraction of them. Despite the power offered, most of us just repeat the same commands over and over again.

And that’s one of the biggest myths about Linux. A lot of people still see Linux as a difficult operating system used only by hardcore geeks who have a bazillion commands memorized, but that’s simply not true. If you can learn the most-used commands, you’ll have a perfectly fine time in Linux — even as a total newbie.

 

So whether you’re just getting started or simply curious, here are the most common commands that will carry you through your entire time on Linux.

 

Terminal Navigation Commands

Before you can really make full use of the terminal, you’ll need to know how to navigate it. That’s why we consider these the most basic Linux commands: no amount of terminal knowledge will help you if you can’t change directories or get help on a command you don’t remember how to use.

  • && — This one is so basic that it’s not even technically a command. If you ever want to run multiple commands in sequential order, just stick this in between each one. For example, [command1] && [command2] will first run [command1] then immediately follow it with [command2]. You can chain as many commands as you want.
  • ! — Repeats a recently used command. Best to use it in conjunction with the historycommand. You can use !n to repeat the n-th command in history. You can also use !-n to repeat the command that happened n commands ago.
  • cd — Changes the current terminal directory.
  • clear — Clears the terminal screen.
  • history — Displays a list of all recently used commands. You can also cycle through recently used commands by pressing the Up and Down arrow keys in the terminal.
  • ls — Displays a list of all files in the current terminal directory. You can modify it with parameters to specify some other directory or to change the format of the list.
  • man — Displays a help page (from the manual) based on your search query. Very useful for learning how to use a command you don’t recognize or when you forget the parameters for an infrequently used command. If you’re ever confused, turn to man.
  • pwd — Displays the current terminal directory as an absolute path.
  • whatis — Displays brief descriptions of command line programs. Think of it like a simplified version of man when you aren’t sure what a command does but don’t need the full manual on how to use it.

File Management Commands

Most Linux distros come with a graphical desktop environment, and no matter which desktop environment you choose to use, you’ll be able to browse and manage files in the same way you would on Windows or Mac — but for complex tasks, it’s often easier and faster to use the command line.

  • cat — When used on a single text file, it will display the contents of that file. When used on two or more text files, it will display all of their contents in sequential order. Use the redirection operator (“>“) to combine multiple text files into one text file.
  • chmod/chown — The chmod command changes the read, write, and execute permissions of a file while the chown command changes the user and/or user group that owns a file.
  • cp — Makes a copy of a file. By default, the copy appears in the current terminal directory, but you can also specify the destination directory as well.
  • find — Searches a specific directory (or your entire system) to find files that match a given set of criteria. There are dozens of options, including filename, filetype, filesize, permissions, owners, date created, date modified, etc.
  • grep — Searches a specific file or set of files to see if a given string of text exists, and if it does, tells you where the text exists in those files. This command is extremely flexible (e.g. use wildcards to search all files of a given type) and particularly useful for programmers (to find specific lines of code).
  • locate — Searches the entire system for files or directories that match the search query, then outputs the absolute paths for each match. By default, it only searches in directories for which you have permissions. This is the simplest and fastest way to find a file.
  • mkdir/rmdir — Creates or deletes a directory, by default in the current terminal directory but a target directory can be specified as well. When deleting, the directory must be completely empty.
  • mv — Moves a file from one directory to another, and you can specify a different name for the file in the target directory. You can use this command to rename a file by moving it to the same directory but with a different filename.
  • nano/emacs/vim — The three main terminal text editors that exist on nearly all Linux systems, ordered by increasing complexity. Newbies should stick to nano as both emacs and vim are wildly complex (and wildly powerful).
  • rename — Changes the name of a file or a set of files. Comes with a lot of interesting parameters, allowing you to automatically rename a bunch of files according to a pattern.
  • rm — Removes files. With a certain parameter, it can be used to wipe the entire contents of a specified directory. It can also be used to delete several files that all match a certain filename pattern.
  • touch — Changes the date accessed or date modified of the given file to right now.
  • wget — Downloads the file or page at the given web URL.
  • zip/gzip/tar — Various formats for compressing and decompressing file archives.

 

System Management Commands

Again, most Linux distros provide a graphical way to manage your system settings, but you may find it easier (and perhaps even more informative) to use these time-tested commands instead. Indeed, these commands tend to offer a lot more power in terms of what you can do.

 
  • apt — While apt isn’t a command in itself, there are three commands that you must know to make full use of APT: add-apt-repository (for locating third-party packages), apt-get(for actually installing packages), and apt-cache (for searching your repositories).
    • If your distro doesn’t use APT, it may use YUM, RPM, or some other alternative. Look into their equivalent commands.
  • bg/fg — Sends a foreground job to run in the background or a background job to run in the foreground. For more on jobs, see the jobs command.
  • df — Displays how much space is used and free on your system.
  • free — Displays how much RAM is used and free on your system.
  • ip — Displays useful network details such as your IP address, network interfaces, bandwidth usage, and more. Can also be used to configure network-related settings.
  • jobs — Displays all current jobs and their statuses. A job is just a representation of a running process or group of processes.
  • kill/killall — You can use kill to end a process according to its process ID (often used in conjunction with the ps command) whereas you can use killall to end all processes whose names match your query.
  • mount/umount — Attaches and detaches a separate filesystem to your system’s main filesystem. Mostly used to make external devices, like hard drives or USB drives, interactable with your computer.
  • ps — Displays a list of currently running processes. By default, it only lists processes started under your current user, but parameters exist to find and filter all kinds of processes.
  • sudo/gksudo — Prepending sudo allows you to run any command as superuser (e.g. sudo [command1]). If you want to run a graphical program with superuser privileges, use gksudofollowed by the executable file for the program.
  • top — Displays a list of currently running processes, sorted by how much CPU each processes uses. Unlike ps, this command regularly updates in real-time. Basically a terminal equivalent to Task Manager.
  • uname — Displays core system information depending on the parameters you use, such as kernel name and version, machine hardware, and operating system.
  • uptime — Displays time elapsed since last boot.
  • whereis — Finds the location of the executable file for a given program.
  • whoami — Displays the current user name. Comes in handy when you’re switching between users with the su command and you lose track of who you are at the moment.

 

 

 

 

Xiaomi unveiled the successor to the one-year-old Mi Max, the Mi Max 2 at an event in Beijing yesterday and its main feature is no doubt the massive 5,300mAh battery! In comparison, the Mi Max has a 4,850mAh battery. 

 

The Chinese company claims that you can easily use the Mi Max 2 for two days on a single charge. It is stated to provide up to 18 hours of video playback, 10 days of music playback, 9 hours of gaming, 21 hours of navigation, 19 hours of reading and call-time of 57 hours!

 

The huge battery capacity is augmented by the superb power-efficient Qualcomm Snapdragon 625 processor, which can also be found in the Redmi Note 4, ASUS ZenFone 3, ASUS ZenFone 3 Zoom and Moto Z Play. If the battery runs out of juice, the Mi Max 2 can be charged up to 68 percent in an hour, thanks to Quick Charge 3.0 and parallel charging.

 

Other specifications include a 6.44-inch immersive display, a full metal unibody with symmetrical design, rounded edges and discreet antenna design, a 12MP rear Sony IMX386 camera sensor, a 5MP front-facing camera, 4GB RAM, 64/128GB internal storage with microSD support up to 128GB, stereo speakers, and a rear fingerprint sensor. 

 

The Mi Max 2 will be available in China on June 1 for CNY1,699 (~RM1,059, 4GB + 64GB model) and CNY1,999 (~RM1,249, 4GB + 128GB model). It took nearly four months after the official announcement for the Mi Max to arrive in Malaysia, so we reckon the same will apply for the Mi Max 2 or earlier! Keep your fingers crossed! 

 

 

 

The cell phone business seems so ancient these days that it’s easy to believe the sides are entrenched.

 

You’re either an iPhone person who mocks anyone who has an Android phone. Or you’re one of those Android or other non-iPhone people who derides everyone who has an iPhone.

Is it worth trying to get people to switch? Apple thinks it is.

 

In a new campaign aimed at the Android types, Apple claims that it’s better along several axes. More than that, though, the campaign wants you to believe that it’s astoundingly easy to give up your Android and come over to the bright — or, depending on your perspective, dark — side.

 

Five short ads highlight Apple’s allegedly superior offerings. One claims that the music in your world will become so much more jolly when you have an iPhone. For no obvious reason whatsoever.

 

Another says that the iPhone keeps you away from digital snoopers — and they’re very creepy-looking.

 

Then there’s speed. Apparently, iPhones are far faster than Android phones. Blindingly so, says this ad. Oh, it seems to me that all new phones start fast and then slow down as they age.

 

Another ad insists iPhone will straighten out your photos — and migrating them is so easy. Why, Apple will even send movers to your house to help you.

 

Talking of easy, the last ad doesn’t even bother with a semblance of rationality, settling for just telling you to jump because it’s simple.

 

Is this all persuasive? Not if you’re ingrained in your ways and fear that something, somewhere along the line will be lost if you change systems. This campaign is more a nag for those who already have the nagging feeling that something might be better on the other side of the fence.

 

For me, it’s like cooking with gas or electric. They both work. I’ve always been comfortable with gas. Last week, I ended up cooking on a very fancy electric stove top. It was surprisingly good. Would I get one? Probably not.

 

The gas hasn’t let me down enough yet.

 

 

 

 

Those Angry Birds are flocking back to the big screen.

 

Rovio, the company behind the blockbuster mobile gaming franchise, said Monday the sequel to “The Angry Birds Movie” is set to come out Sept. 20, 2019. Creatively named “The Angry Birds Movie 2,” the film will be released to coincide with the 10th anniversary of the launch of the original game.

 

Despite waning interest in the mobile games themselves, the original film was a hit. The animated movie grossed nearly $350 million around the world, and $107.5 million in the US, according to Box Office Mojo.

 

Sony Pictures Imageworks will handle the animation for the movie, which will be produced by Rovio and Columbia Pictures. Thurop Van Orman (“The Marvelous Misadventures of Flapjack,” “Adventure Time”) and John Rice (“King of the Hill,” “Rick and Morty”) will direct.

 

 

The majority of UK tills have lifted the GBP 30 limit for mobile payments made with Apple Pay.

 

Hundreds of thousands of terminals have been upgraded to supported limitless contactless payments for Apple Pay, allowing customers to make payments of any value.

 

Most terminals that support contactless payments have a GBP 30 limit to prevent fraud. However, Apple Pay transactions, which are made by holding the iPhone or Apple Watch against a card reader, are approved using biometrics such as the iPhone fingerprint scanner. This gives retailers an incentive to lift the payment limit for transactions made through the app.

 

Apple Pay transactions in the UK market have increased by 300% in 2016 and in 2017, 23 banks support the service, according to The Telegraph.

 

 

U Mobile recently announced that it would be working together with Huawei to launch its new 4.5G service in Malaysia.

 

Specifically, U Mobile and Huawei will be launching its 4.5G service via the 1,800MHz and the 2,600MHz waveband, and they will be starting in Johor Bahru, allowing residents in the state to be the first to enjoy the telco’s new and faster mobile service.

 

“U Mobile is very excited to be able to launch 4.5G service in Johor Bahru. From today [May 23, 2017], customers in Johor Bahru will enjoy significant enhancement in their user experience. For those who are using smartphones that support 4.5G service, such as Huawei P10 Plus, the enhancement will be even more significant with up to twice the speed of 4G, making their experiences in streaming, downloading and browsing so much faster and better,” Wong Heang Tuck, CEO of U Mobile, said.

 

“We are delighted that Malaysian customers can now experience a better and faster mobile broadband service based on 4.5G technologies. The new service not only allows customers to enjoy new initiatives like high definition (HD) video whenever and wherever they are, it is also a key stepping stone for the realization of Internet of Things (IoT). We look forward to working with U Mobile and other industry partners to bring new and innovative services to more customers and vertical sectors in the near future,” Abraham Liu Kang, CEO of Huawei Malaysia, also commented about the collaboration between his company and U Mobile.

 

 

EasyStore and SiteGiant, two Malaysia-based shopping cart providers, will provide all online businesses with cash payment method.

 

Through their partnership with MOLPay, a payment gateway in Southeast Asia, both EasyStore and SiteGiant are providing multi-channel payment options to the ecommerce platforms, including cash payment.

 

MOLPay’s latest channel, MOLPay CASH, has attracted customers since its launch in 2014. With its collaboration with 7-Eleven Malaysia, ecommerce players are able to reach their customer base. MOLPay reported that MOLPay is in the 4th place after credit card, Maybank2U and CIMBClicks in the payment options favored by Malaysians.

 

With its key objective to provide other payment options than VISA and MasterCard, MOLPay CASH is believed to increase merchant’s sales by 40%. Malaysians who do not own bank accounts and credit cards can also shop online. This method also adds another option for customers who prefer cash transaction and those who are doubtful with the online security.

 

Customers go to any online store supported by MOLPay, select all the items that they want and add them to the cart. Then, they can proceed to checkout, select the MOLPay cash option and the shipping method they prefer. MOLPay will generate Transaction ID and Verification Code to the buyer.

 

Buyer brings the Transaction ID and Verification Code (with MOLPay logo) to make payment at a physical outlet. 7-Eleven staff confirms the payment upon the completion with a receipt. MOLPay will update merchants on the payment status.

 

Through the partnership of the largest shopping cart providers with MOLPay, many business owners and consumers will start to acknowledge the cash payment method. This is due to the fact that the people who use the service provider is already connected with the payment gateway.

 

EasyStore and SiteGiant aimed to support small businesses in their previous collaboration with MOLPay. This partnership has attracted the small businesses to establish their own ecommerce and handle it even from home or during vacation. They also provide the options for the businesses with a monthly subscription which lower the barriers for the businesses to get started.

 

Since 60% of Malaysians still prefer using cash, the partnership between these companies enables the ecommerce to cater cash-preferred consumers along with convenient checkout processes.

 

Payment solutions provider GHL Systems has partnered Alipay to offer Malaysian in-store merchants and online merchants an alternative payment option.

 

The service rollout is set to start with the in-store merchants before the end of April 2017 and will eventually be extended to ecommerce merchants.

 

GHL had started its partnership with Alipay in 2016 in Thailand, which allowed both sides to familiarise themselves with the operational methodology. To-date, GHL Thailand has enabled over 600 merchant acceptance points with various chain stores in the hotel, retail and food and beverages space.

 

In 2016, Malaysia had received 26.8 million tourists, including 2.1 million tourists from China, contributing close to RM82.1 billion in revenues, The Star reports.

 

GHL provides integrated payment solutions encompassing physical and virtual payments on sale and rental basis, including Electronic Data Capture (EDC) terminals compliant to the Europay-Mastercard-Visa (EMV) platform, contactless readers, network access routers, and online payment gateways.

 

 

 

Google has announced that Android Pay will be available in five new markets: Taiwan, Spain, Brazil, Russia and Canada.

 

So far, Google has officially confirmed that Android Pay is launching in Taiwan. Furthermore, the company unveiled plans to expand its mobile payment app to Canada, Spain, Brazil and Russia.

 

Russia media reports that Android Pay will be available at the following banks: Sberbank Rossii, Alfa-Bank, Raiffeisenbank, and Tinkoff Bank. Android users, which account for 87% of the total smartphone market in Russia, according to XDA, will be able to make mobile payments using the NFC at these banks.

 

Google has not confirmed which banks will support Android Pay in Canada, Spain and Brazil.

 

 

 

Tesco Malaysia`s online sales are expected to grow in 2017, due to online shopping growth of 18% per year, according to Tesco Stores (Malaysia).

 

As of 2016, online sales contributed only 2% to the company’s total turnover. Online grocery shopping is growing at a relatively slow pace, as Malaysians still prefer to shop at traditional markets or grocery stores.

 

Tesco was the first grocery chain in Malaysia to introduce online grocery shopping two years ago. To date, its delivery coverage has grown to reach 50% of the nationwide population. Tesco Malaysia has also partnered with Lazada and Happy Grocer to extend its online shopping services.

 

Grocery stores larger than 60,000 square metres are challenging to sustain. The optimal solution, which Tesco is also implementing in some of its stores, is to use space better by offering a wider and improved range of products in a smaller floor space.

 

In 2017, Tesco Malaysia will be opening two new stores and four to six next generation stores (smaller sized stores with a proportionally wider range of products).